M. Pätzold, S. Siebenhaller, S. Kara, A. Liese, C. Syldatk, D. Holtmann
‘Ideal’ solvents in biocatalysis have to fulfill a large number of requirements, such as high substrate solubility, high enzyme activity and stability, and positive effects on reaction equilibrium. In the past decades, many enzymatic synthesis routes in water-based and nonaqueous (organic solvents, ionic or supercritical fluids) reaction media have been developed. However, no solvent meets every demand for different reaction types at the same time, and there is still a need for novel solvents suited for different reaction types and applications. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have recently been evaluated as solvents in different biocatalytic reactions. They can improve substrate supply, conversion, and stability. The best results were obtained when the DES is formed by the substrates of an enzymatic reaction.