Refractory metals and nickel in high temperature chlorine-containing environments - thermodynamic prediction of volatile corrosion products and surface reaction mechanisms: a review

M.C. Galetz, B. Rammer, M. Schütze

Thermodynamic calculations are an important tool for prediction of chemical reactions. In many cases the results help to understand and describe the experimental observations. In others, especially if reaction kinetics play a major role, their predictive value can be rather limited and the projected results have to be treated with care. One such case are high temperature chlorine corrosion conditions.

For example, thermodynamically a similar corrosion behavior of nickel and molybdenum is predicted in chlorine-containing atmospheres at low oxygen partial pressures. In contrast to their calculated similarity, experimental results showed much higher resistance of molybdenum against the chlorinating attack. Above 800 °C nickel is rapidly consumed, whereas molybdenum remains almost inert.

This paper reviews the literature on the corrosion mechanisms and kinetics of nickel and molybdenum in chlorine-containing environments as well as in mixed oxygen-chlorine-containing atmospheres. Based on the literature review, differences in their reaction kinetics are discussed, taking into account the deviation from an ideal thermodynamic correlation between the partial pressure and the reaction kinetics via the often used Hertz-Langmuir equation. Finally it is shown that the findings concerning the special characteristics of molybdenum and nickel and the conclusions drawn from experimental observations on high temperature chlorine corrosion can also be transferred to other metals.

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